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Food Processing And Equipment

Cleaning All raw nuts carry foreign matter, consisting of sand, stones, dried apple etc. The presence of foreign matter in the roasting operation can be avoided by cleaning the nuts. The raw nuts can be sieved by hand using a ¾ inch mesh sieve. Soaking The next stage is to soak the nuts in water to avoid scorching them during the roasting operation. This can be done by placing the nuts in a 40-45 gallon drum or vat and filling it with water until all the nuts are covered. After being left to stand for about ten minutes, the water should be drained off via a plug near the base of the drum. The nuts should then be left for periods of not less than four hours in order to allow the water left on the surface of the nuts to be absorbed.

The process of covering the nuts with water, draining and standing should be repeated with the same nuts about three times until a moisture content of 9% is reached. Where the production output runs from 2-10 tons of nuts per day, a simple cleaning and conditioning arrangement can be used. Two people open the sacks of harvested nuts on a stand and clean the raw nuts as they are moved along a flat sieve, to two vats which are used for storage until the soaking process begins. Two vats are useful because one can be emptied while the other is being filled.

Roasting The application of heat to the nut releases the nut shell liquid and makes the shell brittle which facilitates the extraction of the kernel when breaking the shell open. Three methods of roasting exist: open pan, drum roasting and the ‘hot oil’ method. The latter is more suitable to mediumscale operations with associated higher equipment costs and viability of CNSL collection.